Saturday, March 25, 2023

Emergent Chief


One of many widespread methods utilized in peer-to-peer programs is to
order cluster nodes in line with their ‘age’. The oldest member of
the cluster performs the function of the coordinator for the cluster.
The coordinator is accountable for deciding on membership modifications
in addition to making choices similar to the place
Fastened Partitions must be positioned
throughout cluster nodes.

To kind the cluster,
one of many cluster nodes acts as a seed node or an introducer node.
All of the cluster nodes be part of the cluster by contacting the seed node.

Each cluster node is configured with the seed node deal with.
When a cluster node is began, it tries to contact the seed node
to affix the cluster.

class ClusterNode…

  MembershipService membershipService;
  public void begin(Config config) {
      this.membershipService =  new MembershipService(config.getListenAddress()); part of(config.getSeedAddress());

The seed node might be any of the cluster nodes. It is configured with its personal
deal with because the seed node deal with and is the primary node that’s began.
It instantly begins accepting requests. The age of the seed node is 1.

class MembershipService…

  Membership membership;
  public void be part of(InetAddressAndPort seedAddress) {
      int maxJoinAttempts = 5;
      for(int i = 0; i < maxJoinAttempts; i++){
          attempt {
          } catch (Exception e) {
              logger.information("Be part of try " + i + "from " + selfAddress + " to " + seedAddress + " failed. Retrying");
      throw new JoinFailedException("Unable to affix the cluster after " + maxJoinAttempts + " makes an attempt");

  personal void joinAttempt(InetAddressAndPort seedAddress) throws ExecutionException, TimeoutException {
      if (selfAddress.equals(seedAddress)) {
          int membershipVersion = 1;
          int age = 1;
          updateMembership(new Membership(membershipVersion, Arrays.asList(new Member(selfAddress, age, MemberStatus.JOINED))));
      lengthy id = this.messageId++;
      CompletableFuture<JoinResponse> future = new CompletableFuture<>();
      JoinRequest message = new JoinRequest(id, selfAddress);
      pendingRequests.put(id, future);
      community.ship(seedAddress, message);

      JoinResponse joinResponse = Uninterruptibles.getUninterruptibly(future, 5, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

  personal void begin() {
      logger.information(selfAddress + " joined the cluster. Membership=" + membership);

  personal void updateMembership(Membership membership) {
      this.membership  = membership;

There may be a couple of seed node. However seed nodes begin accepting
requests solely after they themselves be part of the cluster. Additionally the cluster
can be practical if the seed node is down, however no new nodes can be in a position
so as to add to the cluster.

Non seed nodes then ship the be part of request to the seed node.
The seed node handles the be part of request by creating a brand new member report
and assigning its age.
It then updates its personal membership listing and sends messages to all of the
current members with the brand new membership listing.
It then waits to make it possible for the response is
returned from each node, however will finally return the be part of response
even when the response is delayed.

class MembershipService…

  public void handleJoinRequest(JoinRequest joinRequest) {

  personal void handleNewJoin(JoinRequest joinRequest) {
      Record<Member> existingMembers = membership.getLiveMembers();
      ResultsCollector resultsCollector = broadcastMembershipUpdate(existingMembers);
      JoinResponse joinResponse = new JoinResponse(joinRequest.messageId, selfAddress, membership);
      resultsCollector.whenComplete((response, exception) -> {
          logger.information("Sending be part of response from " + selfAddress + " to " + joinRequest.from);
          community.ship(joinRequest.from, joinResponse);

class Membership…

  public Membership addNewMember(InetAddressAndPort deal with) {
      var newMembership = new ArrayList<>(liveMembers);
      int age = yongestMemberAge() + 1;
      newMembership.add(new Member(deal with, age, MemberStatus.JOINED));
      return new Membership(model + 1, newMembership, failedMembers);

  personal int yongestMemberAge() {
      return -> m.age).max(Integer::evaluate).orElse(0);

If a node which was already a part of the cluster is making an attempt to rejoin
after a crash, the failure detector state associated to that member is

class MembershipService…

  personal void handlePossibleRejoin(JoinRequest joinRequest) {
      if (membership.isFailed(joinRequest.from)) {
          //member rejoining
          logger.information(joinRequest.from  + " rejoining the cluster. Eradicating it from failed listing");

It is then added as a brand new member. Every member must be recognized
uniquely. It may be assigned a novel identifier at startup.
This then gives some extent of reference that makes it doable to
verify whether it is an current cluster node that’s rejoining.

The membership class maintains the listing of dwell members in addition to
failed members. The members are moved from dwell to failed listing
in the event that they cease sending HeartBeat as defined within the
failure detection part.

class Membership…

  public class Membership {
      Record<Member> liveMembers = new ArrayList<>();
      Record<Member> failedMembers = new ArrayList<>();
      public boolean isFailed(InetAddressAndPort deal with) {
          return -> with.equals(deal with));

Sending membership updates to all the present members

Membership updates are despatched to all the opposite nodes concurrently.
The coordinator additionally wants to trace whether or not all of the members
efficiently acquired the updates.

A standard approach is to ship a a method request to all nodes
and count on an acknowledgement message.
The cluster nodes ship acknowledgement messages to the coordinator
to verify receipt of the membership replace.
A ResultCollector object can monitor receipt of all of the
messages asynchronously, and is notified each time
an acknowledgement is acquired for a membership replace.
It completes its future as soon as the anticipated
acknowledgement messages are acquired.

class MembershipService…

  personal ResultsCollector broadcastMembershipUpdate(Record<Member> existingMembers) {
      ResultsCollector resultsCollector = sendMembershipUpdateTo(existingMembers);
      resultsCollector.orTimeout(2, TimeUnit.SECONDS);
      return resultsCollector;

  Map<Lengthy, CompletableFuture> pendingRequests = new HashMap();
  personal ResultsCollector sendMembershipUpdateTo(Record<Member> existingMembers) {
      var otherMembers = otherMembers(existingMembers);
      ResultsCollector collector = new ResultsCollector(otherMembers.dimension());
      if (otherMembers.dimension() == 0) {
          return collector;
      for (Member m : otherMembers) {
          lengthy id = this.messageId++;
          CompletableFuture<Message> future = new CompletableFuture();
          future.whenComplete((end result, exception)->{
              if (exception == null){
          pendingRequests.put(id, future);
          community.ship( with, new UpdateMembershipRequest(id, selfAddress, membership));
      return collector;

class MembershipService…

  personal void handleResponse(Message message) {

  personal void completePendingRequests(Message message) {
      CompletableFuture requestFuture = pendingRequests.get(message.messageId);
      if (requestFuture != null) {

class ResultsCollector…

  class ResultsCollector {
      int totalAcks;
      int receivedAcks;
      CompletableFuture future = new CompletableFuture();
      public ResultsCollector(int totalAcks) {
          this.totalAcks = totalAcks;
      public void ackReceived() {
          if (receivedAcks == totalAcks) {
      public void orTimeout(int time, TimeUnit unit) {
          future.orTimeout(time, unit);
      public void whenComplete(BiConsumer<? tremendous Object, ? tremendous Throwable> func) {
      public void full() {

To see how ResultCollector works, contemplate a cluster
with a set of nodes: let’s name them athens, byzantium and cyrene.
athens is appearing as a coordinator. When a brand new node – delphi –
sends a be part of request to athens, athens updates the membership and sends the updateMembership request
to byantium and cyrene. It additionally creates a ResultCollector object to trace
acknowledgements. It data every acknowledgement acquired
with ResultCollector. When it receives acknowledgements from each
byzantium and cyrene, it then responds to delphi.

Frameworks like Akka
use Gossip Dissemination and Gossip Convergence
to trace whether or not updates have reached all cluster nodes.

An instance situation

Think about one other three nodes.
Once more, we’ll name them athens, byzantium and cyrene.
athens acts as a seed node; the opposite two nodes are configured as such.

When athens begins, it detects that it’s itself the seed node.
It instantly initializes the membership listing and begins
accepting requests.

When byzantium begins, it sends a be part of request to athens.
Observe that even when byzantium begins earlier than athens, it should hold
making an attempt to ship be part of requests till it could actually connect with athens.
Athens lastly provides byzantium to the membership listing and sends the
up to date membership listing to byzantium. As soon as byzantium receives
the response from athens, it could actually begin accepting requests.

With all-to-all heartbeating, byzantium begins sending heartbeats
to athens, and athens sends heartbeat to byzantium.

cyrene begins subsequent. It sends be part of requests to athens.
Athens updates the membership listing and sends up to date membership
listing to byantium. It then sends the be part of response with
the membership listing to cyrene.

With all to all heartbeating, cyrene, athens and byzantium
all ship heartbeats to one another.

Dealing with lacking membership updates

It is doable that some cluster nodes miss membership updates.
There are two options to deal with this drawback.

If all members are sending heartbeat to all different members,
the membership model quantity may be despatched as a part of the heartbeat.
The cluster node that handles the heartbeat can
then ask for the newest membership.
Frameworks like Akka which use Gossip Dissemination
monitor convergence of the gossiped state.

class MembershipService…

  personal void handleHeartbeatMessage(HeartbeatMessage message) {
      if (isCoordinator() && message.getMembershipVersion() < this.membership.getVersion()) {
          membership.getMember(message.from).ifPresent(member -> {
              logger.information("Membership model in " + selfAddress + "=" + this.membership.model + " and in " + message.from + "=" + message.getMembershipVersion());

              logger.information("Sending membership replace from " + selfAddress + " to " + message.from);

Within the above instance, if byzantium misses the membership replace
from athens, it will likely be detected when byzantine sends the heartbeat
to athens. athens can then ship the newest membership to byzantine.

Alternatively every cluster node can verify the lastest membership listing periodically,
– say each one second – with different cluster nodes.
If any of the nodes determine that their member listing is outdated,
it could actually then ask for the newest membership listing so it could actually replace it.
To have the ability to evaluate membership lists, typically
a model quantity is maintained and incremented everytime
there’s a change.

Failure Detection

Every cluster additionally runs a failure detector to verify if
heartbeats are lacking from any of the cluster nodes.
In a easy case, all cluster nodes ship heartbeats to all the opposite nodes.
However solely the coordinator marks the nodes as failed and
communicates the up to date membership listing to all the opposite nodes.
This makes positive that not all nodes unilaterally deciding if
another nodes have failed. Hazelcast is an instance
of this implementation.

class MembershipService…

  personal boolean isCoordinator() {
      Member coordinator = membership.getCoordinator();
      return with.equals(selfAddress);

  TimeoutBasedFailureDetector<InetAddressAndPort> failureDetector
          = new TimeoutBasedFailureDetector<InetAddressAndPort>(Length.ofSeconds(2));

  personal void checkFailedMembers(Record<Member> members) {
      if (isCoordinator()) {

      } else {
          //if failed member consists of coordinator, then verify if this node is the subsequent coordinator.

  void removeFailedMembers() {
      Record<Member> failedMembers = checkAndGetFailedMembers(membership.getLiveMembers());
      if (failedMembers.isEmpty()) {

Avoiding all-to-all heartbeating

All-to-all heartbeating is just not possible in massive clusters.
Usually every node will obtain heartbeats from
just a few different nodes. If a failure is detected,
it is broadcasted to all the opposite nodes
together with the coordinator.

For instance in Akka a node ring is shaped
by sorting community addresses and every cluster node sends
heartbeats to just a few cluster nodes.
Ignite arranges all of the nodes within the cluster
in a hoop and every node sends heartbeat solely to the node subsequent
to it.
Hazelcast makes use of all-to-all heartbeat.

Any membership modifications, due to nodes being added or
node failures must be broadcast to all the opposite
cluster nodes. A node can join to each different node to
ship the required data.
Gossip Dissemination can be utilized
to broadcast this data.

Cut up Mind Scenario

Though a single coordinator node decides when to
mark one other nodes as down, there is no specific leader-election
occurring to pick which node acts as a coordinator.
Each cluster node expects a heartbeat from the present
coordinator node; if it does not get a heartbeat in time,
it could actually then declare to be the coordinator and take away the present
coordinator from the memberlist.

class MembershipService…

  personal void claimLeadershipIfNeeded(Record<Member> members) {
      Record<Member> failedMembers = checkAndGetFailedMembers(members);
      if (!failedMembers.isEmpty() && isOlderThanAll(failedMembers)) {
          var newMembership = membership.failed(failedMembers);

  personal boolean isOlderThanAll(Record<Member> failedMembers) {
      return -> m.age < thisMember().age);

  personal Record<Member> checkAndGetFailedMembers(Record<Member> members) {
      Record<Member> failedMembers = members
              .filter(member -> ! with.equals(selfAddress) && failureDetector.isMonitoring( with) && !failureDetector.isAlive( with))
              .map(member -> new Member( with, member.age, member.standing)).acquire(Collectors.toList());

          failureDetector.take away( with);
          logger.information(selfAddress + " marking " + with + " as DOWN");
      return failedMembers;

This may create a state of affairs the place there are two or extra subgroups
shaped in an current cluster, every contemplating the others
to have failed. That is known as split-brain drawback.

Think about a 5 node cluster, athens, byzantium, cyrene, delphi and euphesus.
If athens receives heartbeats from dephi and euphesus, however
stops getting heartbeats from byzantium, cyrene, it marks
each byzantium and cyrene as failed.

byzantium and cyrene might ship heartbeats to one another,
however cease receiving heartbeats from cyrene, dephi and euphesus.
byzantium being the second oldest member of the cluster,
then turns into the coordinator.
So two separate clusters are shaped one with athens as
the coordinator and the opposite with byzantium because the coordinator.

Dealing with cut up mind

One widespread approach to deal with cut up mind subject is to
verify whether or not there are sufficient members to deal with any
shopper request, and reject the request if there
will not be sufficient dwell members. For instance,
Hazelcast lets you configure
minimal cluster dimension to execute any shopper request.

public void handleClientRequest(Request request) {
    if (!hasMinimumRequiredSize()) {
        throw new NotEnoughMembersException("Requires minium 3 members to serve the request");

personal boolean hasMinimumRequiredSize() {
    return membership.getLiveMembers().dimension() > 3;

The half which has nearly all of the nodes,
continues to function, however as defined within the Hazelcast
documentation, there’ll all the time be a
time window
by which this safety has but to return into impact.

The issue may be averted if cluster nodes are
not marked as down until it is assured that they
will not trigger cut up mind.
For instance, Akka recommends
that you simply don’t have nodes
marked as down
via the failure detector; you’ll be able to as a substitute use its
cut up mind resolver.

Recovering from cut up mind

The coordinator runs a periodic job to verify if it
can connect with the failed nodes.
If a connection may be established, it sends a particular
message indicating that it needs to set off a
cut up mind merge.

If the receiving node is the coordinator of the subcluster,
it should verify to see if the cluster that’s initiating
the request is a part of the minority group. Whether it is,
it should ship a merge request. The coordinator of the minority group,
which receives the merge request, will then execute
the merge request on all of the nodes within the minority sub group.

class MembershipService…

  splitbrainCheckTask = taskScheduler.scheduleWithFixedDelay(() -> {
          1, 1, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

class MembershipService…

  personal void searchOtherClusterGroups() {
      if (membership.getFailedMembers().isEmpty()) {
      Record<Member> allMembers = new ArrayList<>();
          if (isCoordinator()) {
          for (Member member : membership.getFailedMembers()) {
              logger.information("Sending SplitBrainJoinRequest to " + with);
              community.ship( with, new SplitBrainJoinRequest(messageId++, this.selfAddress, membership.model, membership.getLiveMembers().dimension()));

If the receiving node is the coordinator of the bulk subgroup, it asks the
sending coordinator node to merge with itself.

class MembershipService…

  personal void handleSplitBrainJoinMessage(SplitBrainJoinRequest splitBrainJoinRequest) {
      logger.information(selfAddress + " Dealing with SplitBrainJoinRequest from " + splitBrainJoinRequest.from);
      if (!membership.isFailed(splitBrainJoinRequest.from)) {

      if (!isCoordinator()) {

      if(splitBrainJoinRequest.getMemberCount() < membership.getLiveMembers().dimension()) {
          //requesting node ought to be part of this cluster.
          logger.information(selfAddress + " Requesting " + splitBrainJoinRequest.from + " to rejoin the cluster");
          community.ship(splitBrainJoinRequest.from, new SplitBrainMergeMessage(splitBrainJoinRequest.messageId, selfAddress));

      } else {
          //we have to be part of the opposite cluster


  personal void mergeWithOtherCluster(InetAddressAndPort otherClusterCoordinator) {
      handleMerge(new MergeMessage(messageId++, selfAddress, otherClusterCoordinator)); //provoke merge on this node.

  personal void askAllLiveMembersToMergeWith(InetAddressAndPort mergeToAddress) {
      Record<Member> liveMembers = membership.getLiveMembers();
      for (Member m : liveMembers) {
          community.ship( with, new MergeMessage(messageId++, selfAddress, mergeToAddress));

Within the instance mentioned within the above part, when athens
can talk with byzantium, it should ask byzantium to merge
with itself.

The coordinator of the smaller subgroup,
then asks all of the cluster nodes
inside its group to set off a merge.
The merge operation shuts down and rejoins the cluster
nodes to the coordinator of the bigger group.

class MembershipService…

  personal void handleMerge(MergeMessage mergeMessage) {
      logger.information(selfAddress + " Merging with " + mergeMessage.getMergeToAddress());
      //be part of the cluster once more via the opposite cluster's coordinator
      taskScheduler.execute(()-> {
          be part of(mergeMessage.getMergeToAddress());

Within the instance above, byzantium and cyrene shutdown and
rejoin athens to kind a full cluster once more.

Comparability with Chief and Followers

It is helpful to check this sample with that of
Chief and Followers. The leader-follower
setup, as utilized by patterns like Constant Core,
doesn’t operate until the chief is chosen
by operating an election. This ensures that the
Quorum of cluster nodes have
an settlement about who the chief is. Within the worst case
situation, if an settlement is not reached, the system will
be unavailable to course of any requests.
In different phrases, it prefers consistency over availability.

The emergent chief, then again will all the time
have some cluster node appearing as a frontrunner for processing
shopper requests. On this case, availability is most well-liked
over consistency.



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